Dr. Tawhid Chtioui
President of the ISGA group
According to the HCP, the national economy, after creating 230,000 jobs during 2020-2021, again lost 58,000 between Q1-2021 and Q1-2022. Although the overall unemployment rate dropped slightly (12.1%), graduates at higher levels, on the other hand, saw their unemployment rate rise by 0.5 points to 26.7%. To better understand these numbers, it must be put into perspective in relation to the loss of 432,000 jobs in 2020, associated with the pandemic crisis.
This reflects the gradual recovery of the Moroccan economy, mainly in the Services, Construction and Industry sectors, while Agriculture and Handicraft continue to lose jobs. Unfortunately, this recovery has been slower than observed in most European countries. In France, for example, private wage employment exceeded its pre -crisis level in 2021 in all sectors except Industry.
This is likely related to different health crisis management policies and to relatively generous assistance schemes, in some particular sectors, that have encouraged recruitment. In order to quickly return to pre -pandemic employment rates, the Moroccan economy must reinvent itself by focusing on reorganizing the sectors that promise and create jobs.
Periods of reduced activity should allow some industries to accelerate their capacity for change and innovation to become more competitive and respond to the new challenges of the global economy: digitalization, training (improvement and re -qualification), offer adaptation. of product service …
Within the ISGA higher education group, we conducted a study on the recruitment market in Morocco in the 1st half of 2021, which listed the most sought after professions, the main recruiters, the levels of education requested, the proposed salary. , distribution by city.
2,214 job offers for executives, published on rekrute.com and emploi.ma sites, were analyzed over six months.
The results of this study have provided interesting light for students and companies as well as for all economic players on the evolutions of the job market in times of health crisis. We have witnessed, over the past few years in Morocco, a simultaneous increase in the share of the most qualified trade and others who are highly unskilled, prompting a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of workers employed in middle scale qualifications. This is called “polarization of work”.
This can be explained mainly by technological advances that favor intellectual activities, and not activities, and by increasingly intense international competition.
The latter, in particular, weighs in on industrial employment, thus causing a decrease in jobs located at the center of the distribution of qualifications (employees and skilled workers), with an education level equal to Bac+2/3 . But more interesting in our study was the observation related to the increasing demand for profiles with intermediate experience (54.9% of offers) whereas before the pandemic, rather young graduates from bac+5 most sought after by companies in Morocco.
Thus, beginners are twice as much sought after compared to 2016. That is why recruiters favor experience to accompany recovery and support competitiveness in the context of emerging from the crisis. The study also shows that the average salary of a young Bac+5 graduate, with no professional experience, is still low and stagnated for several years, despite declining purchasing power.
However, the progress observed, three years of experience after obtaining the diploma, is interesting and shows, once again, the expectations of companies in terms of operational and practical skills. Our schools and universities must combine basic knowledge and practical experience beyond their courses, without forgetting the soft skills, which are highly sought after by employers, as our study shows.
Students must, moreover, multiply projects, internships and professional immersion during their studies in order to aspire, not only to a better salary, but also to a faster and more lasting integration. The world is changing and our university system must adapt accordingly to meet the new expectations of the job market and the renewal of professions and skills.
In addition, the study shows a meteoric increase in self-employment. The search for freedom and work-life balance or the search for mobility and novelty, all characteristics of new generations, are among the reasons that motivate more than one graduate and more than one employee to take a plunge. to enter the world of freelancing.
The health crisis was, moreover, an accelerating factor as many employees moved or valued autonomous and remote work during the crisis, now demanding more flexible working conditions or setting up in their own account.
For today’s generations of technology and web entrepreneurs, the traditional CDI model and the relationship of subordination to an employer do not appeal to them. They earn even more by working freelance while constantly evolving and learning thanks to the diversity of missions and contexts.
This movement is irreversible and should push companies to rethink the organization of work, management methods and relationships with their employees at the risk of seeing employee status completely disappear … ( In the United States, 99% of job creation jobs from 2000 to 2011 were due to the growth of freelance employment, leading some American editorialists to speak of a “Freelance nation”).
The study also revealed that the IT sector and professions now offer the best job prospects in Morocco and beyond the acceleration of digitalization during the pandemic. Morocco is moving towards the digitalization of its companies and has turned to the use of digital technology, which has become essential for all sectors of activity.
Digitalization disrupts the labor market because it causes the loss of many trades and jobs (automation effect) but it creates others that require new skills: artificial intelligence, data management, IoTs, cloud computing, cybersecurity .. So it is clear that today’s young graduates, “digital natives”, are highly attracted to work environments that offer interesting prospects in the field of digital technologies, even in terms of the expertise required. or the work environment and tools offered.
We noticed, in the same vein, that “digital/computing” skill is the 2nd most demanded skill of recruiters in Morocco, all trades combined (after “languages/communications”). This shows that, even outside the digital professions, the area given to this dimension becomes paramount for professional success, requiring not only training in new digital professions but also and mainly supporting the development of digital skills at the level of all functions in companies and administrations through lifelong training … An important condition for the necessary upgrading of certain sectors of the Moroccan economy .
Dr. Tawhid Chtioui, president of the ISGA group, is a professor, international expert and entrepreneur in the field of higher education and training. Holding a doctorate in management sciences from Paris Dauphine University and the leadership development program in Higher Education from Harvard University, he has held scientific and managerial positions at various management schools in Morocco and France. He is the author of several scientific articles and has taught at numerous international institutions. Dr Chtioui has been awarded several international awards such as the “Top 100 leaders in education award” from the Global forum on education & learning (2019) and “The Name in science & education award” from the Socrates committee Oxford debate university of the future (2019).