EcoRéseau Business – What’s the “next world” for tourism?

Estimated reading time: 4 minutes

A review by Laurent Graillot, lecturer in management sciences, and published by The conversation.

52,000 arrivals by plane to Paris for the Easter weekend, which was announced to be seven times more than in 2021 for the period from May to July… the recovery in tourism seems real. Worldwide, this has been observed for some time by the World Tourism Organization. Travelers are already in January 2.3 times more than the same month last year.

For some professionals, this feedback leaves glance a shining summer. It is estimated that in 2022 attendance will reach records and will bring long -awaited recipes after months of pandemic. In 2021, worldwide, the number of international tourists will decrease 71% compared to 2019 (from 1,468 million to 421 million) and at France by 72%.

The revival of mass tourism has aroused the interest of researchers. Two scenarios, corresponding to the two fields of research, seem to emerge. On the one hand, the continuity of tourism that pursues a logic of growth; on the other hand, its redefinition.

Relaunch or “detouristification”?

Few academies therefore encourage the development of recovery techniques to allow the sector to recover “ business as usual “soon. Of those recent work end moreover with the return and maintenance of tourism as it existed in the “world then”.

This perspective also surfs the spread of a “ journey of revenge This expression meant the effects resulting from the combination of wants to meet and travel triggered by social distancing and incarceration imposed by the pandemic. Especially since many households were able to save money during the months of incarceration.

However, the danger of overtourism appears, which is fraught with external negatives. Environmental degradation, the living environment of residents, nuisance and air, visual or sound pollution … Before the pandemic, tourism had been the subject of releasing. Gestures ” tourismophobes was initiated by residents of Barcelona, Venice or Amsterdam, forcing the authorities to implement new regulations. Their bet : maintain the quality of life and, for this also, the financial windfall from tourism.

This is why other research invites us to reject the mass tourism model that values ​​the exploitation of natural, human or cultural resources as the engine of growth. Their authors are pleading for a reinvention of tourism to get stuck in the logic of “always more”, incompatible with the need for maintenance.

This is something, for the sake of ecology, of honoring closer than elsewhere and placing residents at the heart of the tourism system so they can benefit from positive interactions. The works expose the idea of ​​declining tourism or ” detourist They encourage the development of alternative tourism offerings that are compatible with environmental and social appreciation of the host region, this tourism is a must regenerator “.

Three systems

From a theoretical perspective, this alternative model may be based on the concept of “ diversified economy “. It was introduced in 1996 by feminist economic geographers Katherine Gibson and Julie Graham in their book The End of Capitalism (As We Know It), particularly in reaction to the strengthening of neoliberal capitalism. This is done at the expense of other existing systems of production, exchange and distribution. Our ongoing work, based on our previous posts linking tourism and well-being, transfer the concept to this sector.

According to this theory, the economic landscape consists of a there are many hidden skills and organizations which has the potential to have a greater impact on social well-being than capitalism and can contribute to greater environmental regeneration. Very schematic, this theory is interested in five types of relationships developed within the framework of capitalism, alternative capitalism and non-capitalism.

Within the framework of tourism, we observe the co-existence of alternative and non-capitalist systems in the dominant capitalist system, of tour operators. In France, many initiatives can be mentioned. As for alternative skills, Lands of the Andes is, for example, a cooperative and participatory society that offers immersive tourism, developed together with local residents and ensuring fair compensation for guides and host families.

With regard to non-capitalist practices, in addition to WWOOFingthe organization of regards compile local volunteer guides that offer tours to tourists. For its part, the cooperative travel platform Birds pass by combines the two previous skills.

Consideration of this theory may make it possible to identify new forms of tourism. It proposes in particular the development of initiatives that promote collaboration between stakeholders to design tourism offerings involving a variety of economic practices. It can also help develop offers that combine the merchant, the alternative merchant, and even the non -merchant in a balanced way.

This research can also combine the contributions of the work focused on economical prosperity to offer solutions for working, living and (making) travel better with less. It is a question of favoring eudaemonism and less hedonism.The conversation

Laurence Graillotlecturer in management sciences (marketing) – HDR, University of Burgundy – UBFC

This article was republished from The conversation under a Creative Commons license. Readoriginal article.

Leave a Comment