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For the essay
There are three introductory moments: the hook, the formulation of your problem, the announcement of the plan. We settled down.
1) The hook
This is the first sentence of your copy. It sets the style, the tone of your dissertation. It might succeed as well. Remember three basic principles:
- Avoid the introduction of “boats”, lazy, hyper-holy, the sentence which can be applied to all subjects, such as: “As always, the man wonders why he is working » ; “Does money bring happiness? This is the question that can be asked when reading the subject», etc. Don’t just repeat the topic: “What do we gain from working ?, we often ask ourselves. » Sige.
- If you find a good hook, don’t hesitate.. A catchphrase is an introduction that describes a situation in which we ask ourselves the subject question, taken from everyday life, from a literary or artistic example that you know or have studied. in your study, or even from topicality (not forbidden, but to be approached in a ruthless manner).
- Keep it simple. If, after racking your brains, you can’t find an artistic example, taken from everyday life or current events, it’s okay. The hook is not the most important part of your introduction. In this case, go straight to the heart of the matter.
▶ ︎ For the topic “What do we get out of working?», It could be, for example:
“Sa Germinal, Émile Zola describes the difficult and dangerous lives of miners in northern France. They are very poorly paid, have little time for their leisure and their families, and are repressed if they go on strike. They waste their lives underground. Someone wonders what they are really receiving, for their character, for the fruit of their labor.
“The question of purchasing power makes it difficult for the French. Many of them find it difficult to live well as a result of their hard work. But working conditions are also questioned by many employees, for example hospital staff. The salary is bad, but above all tired, with the feeling of not being able to do their profession in acceptable conditions, sometimes they have the feeling of not knowing for what or for whom they are working.
Finally, when you are advised to “keep it simple” -if you really don’t think of any particular example to which the question provided by the topic can be applied -, that is, directly address the problem dimension of the question. By showing, for example, the contradictions on which it is based, or what makes the answer not obvious!
“We often hear that we work to earn money. But it’s not that easy, because in our professional life, we also seek others, such as the company of our colleagues, the recognition of our colleagues and our superiors, personal fulfillment. Perhaps someone is working, therefore, for more than one salary. “
2) The formulation of your problem
This is really the very important moment of your introduction. This shows that you are not happy to copy the topic as it is structured, but you have deployed philosophical stakes. Because before you start writing, you have to, on a draft sheet, analyzed the terms of the subject and reflected on the problems it presented (hence the term “problematic”). At this stage of preparation for the draft, you draw out the consequences of various possible spontaneous responses to the topic. To do this, try to raise the presuppositions contained in the subject, build ins and outs.
▶ ︎ For example, if you are asked “Does the unconscious flee from any form of knowledge?», You will say to yourself: if, in fact, the unconscious will never know, then it refers to some of our thinking and our actions, we can do nothing about it, therefore it is useless to seek to know it.But on the contrary, if a person can try to know his memories or his unconscious desires, then the it becomes conscious … and therefore unconscious. Logical, but problematic. Therefore, the problem is, after this paradox is formed:
“Are there specific techniques, for example by examining someone’s dreams, slips, seemingly unimportant words, that will allow us to have access to the unconscious without consuming it?”
3) Announcement of the plan
It’s pretty simple: sum you up to three (or two if you can’t find three, but three is better!) main stage of argument that will guide your copy, just to show that they are properly linked and each answer, better and better, to the question asked.
▶ ︎ For example, still for the subject in the unconscious:
“First of all, we will see that the unconscious, by definition, can never access consciousness, while it controls a large part of our existence. Then, in the second moment, we will question our itself if, by highlighting the unconscious movements of our mind, for example thanks to literature, the notion of the unconscious does not lose its meaning.Finally, in the third part, we see that a non- only direct way, by analyzing dreams, unanswered actions, verbal associations that we make without thinking about it, we have no route to the unconscious.see more clearly without making it completely clear this unconscious continent. “
Again, be as simple and accurate as possible.
For the explanation of the text
Also included in the introduction three times.
1) The hook
If you know a little about the author of the text, say a little, but don’t make a toast. The quiz consists of checking whether you understand an argumentative text, not whether you have properly modified your author sheets. ! In other words, avoid the six line biography, which is pretty filler. If you don’t know the author, no problem, that’s not the priority requirement. In this case, go straight to the point, and Summarize in a few words the specific question the author is discussing.
︎ For example :
“In this text, Descartes asks himself the question of whether we can access a fundamental and indisputable truth, and above all what method must be followed to access it.”
2) The text challenge
As for the problem for the dissertation, this is the important passage. We must address the philosophical issue of the text, the general question it poses to all of us today. short, how analyzing this verse helps us move forward in solving a big problem.
︎ For example :
“Descartes laid out a paradox: it was by doubting all existing, sensible truth, mathematical truth, the very existence of our identity, that he drew a first indisputable and universal truth , which can serve as the basis of all knowledge.If I doubt everything that, in the very reality of doubt, I am in the process of thought, therefore I exist as an element of thought.If the whole question is to understand how a person goes from the absolute ignorance of doubt to the certainty of knowledge.
3) The structure of the argument
After some reading of the text, you have identified some stages in the author’s thinking. It could be two, three, four, five (not even seven!). We just have to show that we have it understand this sequence.
︎ For example :
“First of all, Descartes (from lines 1 to 4), lays out his main idea. Then, from lines 4 to 9, he gives a particularly striking example. This allows him, from lines 10 to 16, to reveal the solution to his problem: it is because I doubt that I am sure of thinking at once.Finally, from lines 16 to 22, he names the first fact it, it is the ‘substance of thought’.
Attention : in any case, write your intro in the draft before copying it properly in your copy.
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